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BSA warns on risks to workers as COVID restrictions near end

The British Safety Council believes that while the withdrawal of some COVID regulations is valid, removing the mask mandate is the wrong decision to take now and risks real danger to workers.

The Prime Minister has announced the removal of almost all COVID controls from 19 July, including rules on social distancing and the cap on the numbers allowed at events. The wearing of face masks on public transport and in shops and hospitals will cease to be mandatory and will become a matter of personal choice.

With COVID cases rising rapidly, the BSA says masks protect others should you be asymptomatic, so wearing a mask indoors and in crowds reduces the risk of further spreading the disease.

While the vaccination programme has been a success, being vaccinated only reduces the likelihood of ending up in hospital, but it does not give full immunity, so the risk of serious illness remains high.

Furthermore, although the link between cases and hospitalisations is weakened, it’s not broken – the expected 100,000 cases a day could lead to 2,000 admissions, twice what the NHS sees in the depths of winter for all respiratory infections. Plus, millions of people are not yet fully vaccinated.

British Safety Council believes that delegating the decision on the wearing of masks to individuals risks chaos and confusion, as organisations and businesses interpret the change differently and impose their own rules. What businesses need most is certainty and consistency on what is the right thing to do.

It says the mixed messaging from Government is failing to provide reassurance to workers in transport, healthcare and retail who remain concerned about their safety. It adds that it has heard from British Safety Council retail members, for example, that they are planning to leave in place check-out screening to protect workers. Not only does this provide a physical barrier, but also psychological reassurance to staff.

British Safety Council is therefore urging the Government to re-think its policy on the wearing of face masks given the risks it presents to worker safety and not leave the decision to personal choice.

Lawrence Waterman, Chairman of the British Safety Council, said: “To go from the controls put in place for the last 15 months to nothing overnight is a significant risk and particularly to UK workers. While we would all like to believe that everyone will act responsibly, experience shows us this is not guaranteed. There has been a fantastic level of public compliance with the rules, why go from collective protection to a free-for-all?  The Prime Minster himself has said caution is absolutely vital – if he truly believes this, then he should show leadership on the wearing of masks rather than take a leap of faith into the unknown that risks all the sacrifices and hard-won progress made since March 2020.”

30 per cent of disabled workers treated unfairly during pandemic – TUC

Nearly one in three (30 per cent) disabled workers say that they’ve been treated unfairly at work during the Covid-19 pandemic, according to a new poll published by the TUC.

The survey – carried out by YouGov for the TUC – reveals that many disabled people report that they experienced significant barriers in the workplace before the pandemic, and that Covid-19 has made things worse for them.

Before the Covid-19 pandemic, disabled workers were hugely underrepresented and underpaid in the labour market. The employment gap between disabled and non-disabled workers was 28 per cent. And disabled workers are paid 20 per cent less than non-disabled peers. 

Covid-19 risks undoing recent improvements in getting disabled people into work, and pushing disabled people back out of the labour market. Recent government figures show that redundancy rates are now 62 per cent higher for disabled workers 

Disabled workers told the TUC that their disability or shielding status meant they were treated unfairly, and worse than other colleagues during the pandemic. For example:

  • One in 13 (eight per cent) said they were subjected to bullying and/or harassment, being ignored or excluded, singled out for criticism or being monitored excessively at work.
  • One in eight (twelve per cent) said they were concerned their disability had affected their chances of a promotion in the future.
  • One in eight (13 per cent) said they were concerned their disability had affected how their performance would be assessed by their manager.

The poll also uncovered:

  • Shielding workers put at risk: More than one in five (21 per cent) shielding workers worked outside of their home most of the time – even though employers could use furlough to protect shielding workers who could not do their jobs from home. 
  • Hostile workplaces: One in eight (12 per cent) disabled workers told the TUC that they have not told their employer about their disability or health condition, with many of these workers fearing being treated unfairly (24%) or even losing their job (21%) if they were open about their disability or health condition. 
  • Employers failing disabled workers: only just over half (55 per cent) of those who asked their employers for reasonable adjustments during the pandemic told the TUC that they had been made in full. Almost a third (30 per cent) said they didn’t get all their reasonable adjustments, and one in six (16 per cent) said they had none implemented. The law says every employer must make reasonable adjustments for disabled members of staff so they can do their job. These may be things like providing the right type of phone for someone who uses a hearing aid, replacing a desk chair with one designed for an employee who has a back condition, or simply allowing home working.
  • Unsafe workplaces: A quarter of disabled workers (25 per cent) said they felt unsafe at work during the pandemic due to the risk of catching/spreading the virus – and this rose to nearly one in three (30 per cent) among those who worked outside their homes throughout. Of those who face additional risk to Covid-19 due to their health condition/ disability, almost half (46 per cent) have not discussed these additional risks with their employer.

TUC General Secretary Frances O’Grady said: “Before the pandemic, disabled workers were already up against huge barriers getting into and staying in work. Covid-19 has made it even worse. 

“Employers are failing disabled workers.  Many disabled and shielding workers felt unsafe at work during the pandemic. And too many disabled workers told us their boss is breaking the law by not giving them the adjustments they need.

“We saw with the last financial crisis that disabled people are all too often first in line for redundancy. As we recover from the pandemic, we can’t afford to reverse the vital progress that disabled people have made – in the workplace and in wider society.

“Ministers must act. We need proper enforcement of disabled workers’ rights to reasonable adjustments and safety at work, and a duty on employers to report and close the pay gap between disabled and non-disabled workers.” 

10% of workers being forced back to the office, against government guidance

The TUC has today warned that employers are breaching official guidance by forcing staff to “needlessly” work in offices and other workplaces – and says that this points to wider a health and safety enforcement crisis.

New TUC polling reveals that nearly one in ten (nine per cent) staff have been put under pressure by bosses to return to the workplace – a number that rises to over 1 in 6 (17 per cent) for disabled workers.

This is contrary to current Government guidance – and the union body says it is “the tip of the iceberg” of employers ignoring their health and safety responsibilities.

The findings come amid heavy speculation that the Prime Minister will today delay ending Covid restrictions in England, including the work from home guidance, in a bid to combat the sharp increase in Covid cases.

Breaching Government guidance
The TUC says the Government must send a “clear message” to employers not to breach the current guidance – which states that people should work from home if possible – to reduce community transmission and keep workers safe.

Today’s polling reveals that one in four workers (25%) are working from the office or other workplaces despite being able to work from home.

The union body says employers have a duty to make sure their staff are safe. Until such time Government guidance changes,workers should not be required to work from their office or workplace if they can do their job from home, and companies should make use of the furlough scheme if they cannot enable workers to work from home.

Health and safety concerns
The polling also reveals that many employers have still not taken the necessary action to ensure that workplaces are Covid-secure:

  • Nearly half of workers (46 percent) say their employer has not taken technical measures to improve airflow at their workplaces
  • Three in ten staff (29 per cent) said they were not consulted by their employer on a Covid-secure risk assessment
  • One in six staff surveyed (17 per cent) say they have not been given Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
  • One in ten (11 per cent) say that social distancing still isn’t enabled in their workplace

The TUC says that at present workers have little recourse if their employer forces them to come into the workplace when they could do their job from home.

The union body says that ministers should tell workers who are inappropriately told to come into workplaces to call the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) – which should then trigger a spot check from the HSE.

If staff are not reasonably enabled to work from home, the TUC says, this may be evidence that the employer has ignored their responsibilities and is breaking health and safety law.

Employers who unreasonably require workers to come into the workplace when their job can be done from home should be fined.

Enforcement crisis
To date not one company in Britain has been prosecuted and fined for breaching Covid-19 safety rules – despite outbreaks at many workplaces. The TUC is calling on the Government to step up enforcement against companies who take risks with workers’ safety.

The TUC says the Health and Safety Executive and local authorities must clamp down much harder on bosses who put staff at risk – and must have the resources to do so.

The union body is calling for the Government to reverse cuts of the past decade to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), which it says left Britain “under-prepared and vulnerable” to the pandemic.

The last ten years has seen real term cuts of 50 per cent to the HSE budget, on top of local authority budgets being slashed.

There has also been a dramatic decline in inspections. There were 27 per cent fewer HSE inspections carried out in the UK in 2019 than 2011, amounting to a fall of over 5,700 a year.

TUC General Secretary Frances O’Grady said: “We all want to beat this virus once and for all. But some employers are still needlessly requiring workers to come into workplaces when they could work from home – and this is the tip of the iceberg of bosses ignoring their health and safety responsibilities.

“Employers should not be able to ignore Government safety guidance with impunity. It puts workers at risk and increases community transmission. The Government must send out a clear message to employers to play by the rules or face serious action.

“When the Government does move to unlock the economy, we need workers to be confident their workplaces are safe and Covid-secure. So, Ministers must fund enforcement bodies properly so they can recruit and train qualified workplace inspectors, inspect more workplaces, and prosecute companies who don’t keep their workers safe.

“If you are being forced to work in your office or other workplace when your job could be done from home – or if you feel unsafe in any type of workplace – please get in touch with your union. And if you’re not in a union, join one today.”

The TUC is calling on the Government to get a grip on Covid workplace safety and:

  • Tell workers to call the HSE if they are being forced into workplaces unnecessarily
  • Require the HSE to follow up all reports of workers being forced into workplaces with a spot check
  • Fine employers who force workers into workplaces unnecessarily
  • Clamp down much harder on rule-breaking bosses, including those who are still not meeting the legal requirement of conducting a risk assessment.
  • Require the HSE to designate Covid-19 a “serious” workplace risk rather than just a “significant” workplace risk, which has led to a foot-dragging approach to enforcement.
  • Make sure there is enforceable Covid-Secure guidance for every type of workplace once restrictions have ended, developed in consultation with unions and employers.

Only one third of firms embracing full office return post-COVID

While many business leaders are drawn to vaccine passports as a solution to bring their workforces back to the office full-time, Forrester predicts that 70% of US and European companies will pivot to a hybrid work model post-pandemic.

In a hybrid model setup, at least some employees can work anywhere they want for two or more days a week while coming into the office on the remaining workdays. Forrester’s research shows that companies that master this opportunity will accrue both employee experience and business benefits, including higher retention rates and long-term recruitment advantages.

According to Forrester, 55% of US employees say they hope to work from home more often, even after the pandemic ends. Additionally, leaders need to consider overall employee sentiment toward vaccination when planning return-to-office strategies. According to data:

  • 47% of US workers and 54% of European workers believe vaccines will not completely stop the spread of the COVID-19 virus.
  • Only 39% of US workers and 34% of European workers feel that their employers have a plan in place to provide vaccination.
  • Two-thirds of workers in both regions are not comfortable with employers collecting their personal data specific to the pandemic.

While some C-level executives view anywhere-work with skepticism, this model is now imperative for higher-value talent. To successfully implement this model, however, companies must assess specific anywhere-work readiness elements to determine preparedness. They must also consider refreshing their office spaces, including reconceptualizing desk usage to support hybrid work.

Forrester’s anywhere-work readiness calculator will help companies pursue the benefits of anywhere-work and design an action plan based on their readiness. The calculator assesses several company factors, including the percentage of employees who can potentially work remotely and how technologies stack up in terms of collaboration and security. The calculator will help firms invest in and provide technological, cultural, and leadership resources to support work from any location.

“The pandemic has taught us that organizations play a bigger role in employee wellness than previously understood,” said Keith Johnston, VP and group research director at Forrester. “It also reveals how the future of work will be driven by employees having the ability to work anywhere. By shifting conversations to focus on the working environments that best suit employees’ needs moving forward, organizations can ensure that their employees feel they are being heard and that they have the autonomy and tools to do their jobs effectively.”

COVID Recovery ‘could be prolonged’ if staff aren’t supported

Recovery from Long Covid symptoms could be more prolonged if employees are not supported, according to RedArc Nurses, which is encouraging employers to ensure any staff who are suffering get the right support and are not left to cope alone.

As is becoming evident, Long Covid is not a static condition – it can cause a range of changing neurological, psychiatric and physical symptoms of which there are now over 50 reported. Many areas of the body can be affected such as respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological and manifest in symptoms such as breathlessness, muscle or joint pain, headaches, fatigue, digestive issues, anxiety and vertigo. To further complicate matters, individual symptoms can improve and relapse, causing some people to feel that they are suddenly unable to cope. It’s vital that people get the right support as early as possible or symptoms could be more prolonged.

Christine Husbands, Managing Director for RedArc, said: “One of the main issues with Long Covid is that the goalposts keep shifting. Employees can feel quite in control on one day and then a change in the type or severity of symptoms can mean a huge step backwards on another.

“This has huge implications for treatment and support: employees need to be treated as individuals as the symptoms vary so much from person to person – a one-size-fits-all approach simply won’t address the very personal nature of the illness, and secondly, the support needs to be agile and adapt to the individual’s condition as it evolves.”

Mental and physical health are intrinsically linked
For some time, the medical profession has acknowledged the significant link between physical and mental health with one directly impacting the other which has led RedArc to have concerns that the mental strain of experiencing a slow and drawn-out recovery from COVID-19 may also take its toll.

Husbands continues:“Over many years of supporting people with physical illnesses, we’ve witnessed individuals struggle mentally when they are not able to live their lives as fully as they once could, particularly when there is no real end date in sight. In addition, in terms of COVID-19 and Long Covid, we’re not only dealing with the mental health impact of the condition itself but also the fact that people have been coping in isolation or with very little social contact which can exacerbate the impact on mental health.”

A new disease
For many, a very frightening aspect of experiencing Long Covid is that it is new and relatively little is known about the condition. There is a significant benefit in having the support of a medical professional with whom to discuss the emotional journey that accompanies it.

Husbands added: “Whether they have severe or milder symptoms, many employees will be battling through without making a fuss believing they are ‘lucky to be alive’. However, if we want to reduce the impact that Long Covid has on individuals’ lives, their workplaces, and the community as a whole, support needs to be offered at the earliest opportunity.

“Support that is too generic however, won’t cut it for Long Covid as everyone is so different, the symptoms are so wide ranging and interlinked, which is why it’s important that support is personalised. For instance, not only do we help people with their specific symptoms but we also help with advice on pacing and rehabilitation, and support in returning to the workplace. By utilising the support available in employer-sponsored health and wellbeing benefits, insurances and via membership organisations, those with Long Covid will get the best possible help in dealing with the after-effects of the virus as well as putting in place early intervention support to recognise and respond to new symptoms as they arise.”

HSE steps up COVID spot checks as lockdown eases

As we continue the roadmap out of lock down and more businesses re-open, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) says it’s working with local authorities to carry out spot checks and inspections on local businesses.

The reopening of the economy means that the opportunity for COVID to spread is increased substantially, so the HSE says it’s critical that businesses shouldn’t become complacent, i.e., they still need to have COVID-secure measures in place.

The HSE is calling and visiting all types of businesses, in all areas, to check the measures they’ve put in place to manage the risk from coronavirus, are in line with the current guidance. This includes businesses that have continued to operate throughout the pandemic, those that have recently reopened and those due to open in the coming weeks.

The body is continuing to work closely with local authorities, assisting them in their targeting of premises in the sectors they regulate such as hospitality and retail.

During spot checks and inspections, the HSE provides guidance and advice where required, but where businesses aren’t managing the risk, action will be taken. This can range from the provision of specific advice, issuing enforcement notices and stopping certain work practices until they are made safe. Where businesses fail to comply, this could lead to prosecution.

The COVID-secure measures businesses should have in place include:

  • Risk assessment: every workplace should have a COVID risk assessment. Update it to reflect any changes in legislation or guidance that may impact your work activity.
  • Social distancing: where possible you should keep people two metres apart. If this is not viable, keeping one metre apart with risk mitigation, such as screens, is acceptable.
  • Cleaning, hygiene and handwashing: keeping your workplace clean reduces the potential for coronavirus to spread. It is a critical part of making and keeping your business COVID-secure.
  • Ventilation and air conditioning: can help reduce the risk of spreading coronavirus.
  • Talk to workers: provide information about providing support and maintaining control measures.
  • Working from home: provide the equipment they need, keep in regular contact and discuss their wellbeing.
  • Vulnerable workers: talk to staff, provide information and consider the risk to workers who are particularly vulnerable to coronavirus – putting controls in place to reduce that risk.

Angela Storey, Director of Transformation and Operational Services at HSE, said: “As we come out of lockdown, we are continuing to work with local authorities to check businesses are COVID-secure and providing guidance and advice where needed.

“Our spot checks and inspections support the cross-government work in helping employers and employees that have worked throughout the pandemic and those returning as lockdown measures ease. All workplaces are in scope for spot checks which means businesses of any size, in any sector can receive an unannounced check from HSE or an inspection from the local authority, to check they are COVID-secure.

“If you are contacted by the HSE or your local authority, please engage with us. By checking businesses have measures in place to manage the risks, we can benefit the health of local communities as well as support the local and national UK economy.”

Further information on spot checks and inspections is available on the HSE website.

Mental health driving return to work en mass

The majority (52%) of workers are looking forward to returning to the office for mental health and wellbeing reasons, rising to almost two thirds (64%) amongst 18-34 year olds.

That’s according to research by workspace plant specialist Ambius, which concludes that the appeal of working from home could be waning amongst office workers.

While physical health elements such as social distancing, hygiene, and ventilation are high on the list of priorities amongst workers when returning to the office following the pandemic, the research conducted with 2,000 office workers across the UK also highlights the importance of mental health and wellbeing.

58% of office workers miss being in a space that is more dedicated to work, while two in five (42%) say they don’t have a sufficient workspace at home. The same percentage (42%) say they find their workplace is more creative or inspiring than working from home.

Almost four in five (78%) believe employers should now prioritise health and wellbeing at work, with 47% saying they would consider leaving their current job if their employer did not make changes to help improve health and wellbeing.

Almost two thirds (64%) of office workers believe the design of their workplace affects their wellbeing. They cite indoor air quality (48%), their ability to access outdoor space (37%), natural light (34%), heating or air conditioning (34%) and plants and greenery (16%) as the key design factors that they believe influence their wellbeing in the office.

When asked about the value of adding plants to their workplace, 42% of British office workers believe  it improves the air quality, a third (33%) suggest it improves their mental health and wellbeing, and 30% say it creates a better workplace in general.

Prettpal Somel, UK Marketing Executive, Ambius, said: “Initially many people enjoyed working from home full time because it meant they didn’t have to commute into work or dress up. But, 12 months later the mental health benefits of being in a work environment that is separate to the home is shining through once again.

“While employers quite rightly need to consider pressing elements to make their offices COVID-safe, they must not ignore the mental health benefits that a workplace provides. Air quality is not only one of the key pillars in the fight against Coronavirus, but can also help to boost the sense of wellbeing that employees feel when working in a shared space.

Employers should adopt a dual-pronged approach in this regard, deploying an air purifier that is capable of killing virus particles in the air, such as VIRUSKILLER which is distributed by Rentokil Initial, alongside installing office plants which provide a connection with nature while indoors as well as helping to improve air quality. The biophilia hypothesis suggests that humans possess an innate tendency to seek connections with nature, and so having living plants and greenery within the workplace is a great way to enhance this connection.”

SMEs ‘must react’ to demand and support staff’s health and wellbeing remotely

The pandemic is specifically affecting SMEs in terms of health and wellbeing benefits and what employers can do to react to employees’ changing requirements, writes Brett Hill, Distribution Director at Towergate Health & Protection…

SMEs are missing out   

SMEs often feel more restricted when it comes to employee benefits in general and healthcare benefits in particular. Whether it is due to budgetary restrictions, lack of options, or scarcity of resources, SMEs may find that they are not able to offer valued employees the rewards they would like. There are, however, options available and SMEs have the advantage of being quick to respond and adapt.

Health and wellbeing behaviours have changed 

The pandemic has resulted in long-term changes in health and wellbeing behaviours, with the issue moving up the agenda for SMEs, as they are less able to cover sick leave and absence due to self-isolation. There has been a sea-change in attitudes regarding how healthcare is accessed, with many people now actively preferring to access care remotely.

The impact of the pandemic

During the pandemic, direct access to GPs has become more difficult, with face-to-face consultations discouraged. Now, and throughout the course of 2021, is a critical time when NHS GP practices across the country will be occupied with the roll out of the UK’s Covid vaccination programme. With all of these factors combined, statistics have shown that employees may be reticent to approach their GP, and many illnesses and conditions are going undiagnosed. For example, Macmillan Cancer Support reports that 50,000 people have missed out on a cancer diagnosis due to the strains put on the NHS by Covid-19.

Healthcare access for beyond the insured workforce 

The pandemic saw the rapid roll out of online GP services to private medical insurance (PMI) customers in the spring of 2020, with many employees discovering the great time- and money-saving benefits of a virtual appointment. However, not all employers can afford to provide every employee with PMI, so there is a need for an affordable way for SMEs to extend their healthcare and online GP access beyond their insured workforce.

Alternative options

There has been a wealth of recent developments in making health and wellbeing benefits more relevant and accessible, particularly for smaller companies. An increasing number of options are becoming available and it is important that SMEs are aware of new developments.

Many smaller companies offer cash plans: insurance policies to help cover the cost of everyday healthcare, like visits to the dentist, optician, or physiotherapist. New advancements now make the value of cash plans go even further and SMEs need to be on top of changes such as preferential rates for remote physiotherapy services, which provide enhanced value for employers and better outcomes for employees.

Online wellbeing support 

Many SMEs offer access to support via an employee assistance programme (EAP), which may be linked to PMI, group insurance or on a standalone basis. Remote clinical services are growing in terms of popularity and possibilities. As demand for mental health support has surged during the pandemic, so has the availability of online counselling sessions, which are now frequently conducted via video link, and can help improve the employee experience.

Remote clinical services

Likewise support for physical wellbeing is also now possible on screen. Even treatments as physical as physiotherapy are available to employees online. Remote private GP services are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, enabling employees to receive unlimited advice, reassurance and, where appropriate, diagnosis, private prescriptions, and open referrals, from a practising doctor from wherever they are at the time they need help, even if travelling abroad.

One of the benefits of working for an SME is the close working bond that employees can have, and this is reflected in how owners and managers look after their staff, often keen to extend support to family members and dependants. Online GP services help with this, as fast access to primary care can be extended to employees’ families.

Such a service has traditionally only been available to those employees insured on PMI or group risk insurance policies, but standalone options enable companies to extend this to the whole workforce.

British Safety Council repeats call for Government to enforce COVID-19 workplace safety rules

Recent figures published by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) show higher COVID-19 deaths amongst health and social care workers – and the British Safety Council says government needs to more to help bring numbers down.

The body says it is ‘disturbing’ to see that the ‘forgotten’ people who also can’t work from home like machine operators and those working in construction and on production lines, or those employed as drivers and workers in customer-facing roles are also more likely to die.

The British Safety Council says it’s appalled by these figures and is strongly reinforcing its call for a Government health campaign urging employers to improve workplace controls and for enforcement of COVID-19 workplace safety rules, such as ensuring all employers are conducting a risk assessment. People clearly mix in workplaces which increases the potential to catch and transmit the virus.

Mike Robinson, Chief Executive at the British Safety Council, said: “These statistics are alarming and highlight the urgent need for greater Government action to reduce the spread of the virus in workplaces. Employers must follow the rules on making the workplace safe; this will have a greater impact on reducing both the spread of the virus and the number of deaths. While infection rates are coming down in the current national lockdown, they still remain high.”

“Everyone should be safe at work and employers owe a duty of care to their workers to take the steps necessary to remove them from harm’s way.

“More can also be done to protect workers, including more Government support for vulnerable workers as well as for lower paid workers so they can to afford to self-isolate.”

Coronavirus deaths by occupation revealed in ONS data

7,961 deaths involving the coronavirus (COVID-19) in the working age population (those aged 20 to 64 years) of England and Wales were registered between 9 March and 28 December 2020, according to the ONS.

Nearly two-thirds of these deaths were among men (5,128 deaths), with the age-standardised mortality rate of death involving COVID-19 being statistically significantly higher in men, at 31.4 deaths per 100,000 men aged 20 to 64 years compared with 16.8 deaths per 100,000 women (2,833 deaths).

When looking at broad groups of occupations, men who worked in elementary occupations (699 deaths) or caring, leisure and other service occupations (258 deaths) had the highest rates of death involving COVID-19, with 66.3 and 64.1 deaths per 100,000 males, respectively.

In women, process, plant and machine operatives (57 deaths) and caring, leisure and other service occupations (460 deaths) had the highest rates of death involving COVID-19 when looking at broad occupational groups, with 33.7 and 27.3 deaths per 100,000 females, respectively.

Men (79.0 deaths per 100,000 males; 150 deaths) and women (35.9 deaths per 100,000 females; 319 deaths) who worked in social care occupations had statistically significantly higher rates of death involving COVID-19 when compared with rates of death involving COVID-19 in the population among those of the same age and sex.

Almost three in four of the deaths involving COVID-19 in social care occupations (347 out of 469 deaths; 74.0%) were in care workers and home carers, with 109.9 deaths per 100,000 males (107 deaths) and 47.1 deaths per 100,000 females (240 deaths).

Men who worked in healthcare occupations had a statistically higher rate of death involving COVID-19 (44.9 deaths per 100,000 males; 190 deaths) when compared with the rate of COVID-19 among men of the same age in the population; the rate among women who worked in healthcare occupations (17.3 deaths per 100,000 females; 224 deaths) was statistically similar to the rate in the population.

Looking at specific healthcare occupations, nurses had statistically significantly higher rates of death involving COVID-19 when compared with the rate of COVID-19 among those of the same age and sex in the population, with 79.1 deaths per 100,000 males (47 deaths) and 24.5 deaths per 100,000 females (110 deaths); nursing auxiliaries and assistants also had elevated rates of death involving COVID-19.

Rates of death involving COVID-19 in men and women who worked as teaching and educational professionals, such as secondary school teachers, were not statistically significantly raised when compared with the rates seen in the population among those of the same age and sex.

The ONC says, however, that its analysis does not prove conclusively that the observed rates of death involving COVID-19 are necessarily caused by differences in occupational exposure; we adjusted for age, but not other factors such as ethnic group and place of residence.

“Today’s analysis shows that jobs with regular exposure to COVID-19 and those working in close proximity to others continue to have higher COVID-19 death rates when compared with the rest of the working age population. Men continue to have higher rates of death than women, making up nearly two thirds of these deaths,” said Ben Humberstone, Head of Health Analysis and Life Events at the ONS.

“As the pandemic has progressed, we have learnt more about the disease and the communities it impacts most. There are a complex combination of factors that influence the risk of death; from your age and your ethnicity, where you live and who you live with, to pre-existing health conditions. Our findings do not prove that the rates of death involving COVID-19 are caused by differences in occupational exposure.”