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Global Environment, Health & Safety market to hit $8.9bn by 2026

The global Environment, Health & Safety (EHS) market is expected to grow from $6.3 billion in 2021 to $8.9 billion by 2026, equivalent to a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 7.4%.

That’s according to a new report from ResearchAndMarkets, which asserts that that COVID has compounded the reality we were already aware of: that every organisation or workplace is associated with some or the other form of risks, where the nature and intensity of the harm caused due to the accidents vary according to the nature of the industry.

Hence, during COVID, it has become necessary for every industry vertical to adhere to government guidelines and stringent regulations for enhancing the safety of the environment and its employees. In particular, the report says that governing bodies and regional federal agencies are proactively mandating the implementation of EHS software across industry verticals to adhere to the environmental and occupational safety standards.

By deployment mode, the cloud segment is set to grow at the higher CAGR during the forecast period. EHS solutions can be deployed on customer premises using the on-premises or cloud-based deployment mode. With advancements in technology, enterprises are seen to prefer the cloud-based EHS as they offer various benefits, such as a pay-per-use model, flexibility, speed in accessibility, and low installation and maintenance costs.

The report also says SMEs prefer adopting cloud-based EHS software solution due to their budget constraints. Adoption of the on-premises solutions requires a separate infrastructure, maintenance charges, and a dedicated resource team. These factors are expected to trigger the adoption of cloud-based solutions among SMEs.

The energy and utilities vertical has witnessed the significant adoption of EHS software solutions because of the evolving EHS laws, regulations, and standards. EHS software solutions ensure regulatory compliances, mitigate operational risks, and quantify and report air emissions from utilities or energy system processes.

These solutions also include sustainability tracking, which takes care of customized KPIs and business metrics. In addition, EHS software solutions comprise an executive dashboard, which helps professionals manage environmental performance, onsite incidents, and energy and utilities use. The energy and utilities vertical primarily includes natural gas, oil, nuclear power, coal, renewable energy, electricity, water, waste, and recycling sectors.

APAC constitutes thriving economies, such as Singapore, Japan, China, India, and Australia, which are expected to register high growth rates in the EHS market. It is expected to witness the highest CAGR during the forecast period. China has witnessed immense industrial growth and is the manufacturing capital of the world. Its government is getting stricter with EHS regulations and compliances. The Social Science Research Council (SSRC) started a program called China Environment and Health Initiative, generating new research on the connection between health, environment, and development in China.

Similarly, countries such as India, Australia, and Japan are also taking several initiatives to implement the EHS solutions. The Government of India and the labor departments of the states and union territories in the country are responsible for the safety and health of workers. The Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS) and Directorate General Factory Advice Services and Labor Institutes (DGFASLI) assist the ministry in the technical aspects of OSH in mines, factories, and ports. The Government of Australia is also following the Work Health and Safety Act 2011, which includes all the necessary rules and regulations of EHS.

Calls to use ‘Industry 4.0’ to improve safety standards

Industry 4.0, and the growing digitalisation of traditional manufacturing and industrial practices has the potential to have a significant impact on workplace safety.

That’s the conclusion of research carried out by Dräger Safety UK, which points to recent advances including the use of wireless technology and wearable devices to protect those working in hazardous environments and sensors on safety monitoring equipment to inform important maintenance and servicing schedules.

Its research found that only a third (34%) of managers in the sector believe that their organisations are advanced in accessing and acting on improved availability of safety data which is available through this technology.

And when it comes to development and continual improvement in this area, less than half (48%) of managers in manufacturing believed that their organisation is making progress, compared with two thirds, (66%) of managers in the transport and logistics.

Andrew Bligh, System Services & Training Manager Dräger Safety UK, said: “There is a very real opportunity to improve safety standards in the workplace by using the data generated by technology to inform safety policy. For example, when it comes to gas detection, analysing data produced by the devices, offers valuable insight that will allow for better, more informed decision-making, both in the short and long-term. Some may be unaware of the availability of this data, while others feel it is not significant, but it can have a real impact on the safety of a company’s workforce.”

Beyond Dräger’s research, the subject of Industry 4.0 and its impact on health and safety has been adopted by Lloyd’s Register Foundation, an independent global charity which is working to define what makes effective indicators of safety performance to encourage organisations to use health and safety datasets more successfully.

Dräger’s research showed that many employees are comfortable with increased use of digital technology and connectivity, with 44% of those in manufacturing and industry feeling safer if the latest safety technology is being used, while more than a third (39%) believe that increased availability of safety data can improve safety decisions.

Lack of psychological safety in work ‘could hinder inclusion initiatives’

New data reveals that over a tenth of the workforce do not want to be identified when discussing their feelings towards inclusion in the workplace, sparking concerns for the psychological safety of employees at work.

The report from Inpulse also shows that groups that wish to remain anonymous are less likely to feel positive about being themselves at work. For example,individuals who do not disclose their ethnicity feel 43% less positive about being themselves at work than those who disclose their ethnicity, individuals that don’t disclose their gender feel 14% less positive about being themselves at work than those who reveal their gender and individuals that don’t disclose their disability status feel 18% less positive than those who disclose their ability status.

According to Inpulse, these statistics highlight a cultural concern for employers around the psychological safety they are creating for their employees within diversity and inclusion initiatives. They warn that organisations must help their employees feel more comfortable about talking openly about their experiences or risk being unable to identify the groups and areas that need most support. 

Matt Stephens, CEO of Inpulse, said: “Creating psychological safety is essential for successful D&I and engagement strategies so that employees feel comfortable expressing their true concerns so employers can accurately target issues that stifle their employees’ achievements and wellbeing. 

“If there’s a strong belief among employees that they will be punished or embarrassed for speaking openly with their ideas, questions and concerns, then there is a real problem with the psychological safety of employees. 

“However, the fact that 1 in ten workers feels this way is particularly concerning. When an emotion is felt by more than 10% of the workforce, this is the point in which it becomes dominant within a culture and can be felt strongly by others in the group – potentially negatively impacting business performance.”

Emphasising the problem further, Inpulse’s survey reveals that while many employees agree that their organisation is inclusive, they are less likely to agree that this is due to encouragement from their employer. On average, 80% agreed that the culture within the organisation is inclusive to all, regardless of differences; however, just 69% agreed that their organisation encourages diversity and inclusion.

To improve their D&I strategies, Inpulse provides five ways employers can develop psychological safety for employees:

1. Quash negativity

Negativity can be as contagious as positivity, therefore leaders must address negative attitudes before they begin to create psychological safety at work. For example, if people hear a colleague speaking badly of a team member then they may worry the person will do the same to them. Leaders should tackle negativity by giving constructive feedback to negative colleagues and counteracting it with a warm and positive atmosphere.

2. Show empathy 

To emphasise that you truly care about employee concerns, really listen to how they are feeling. Demonstrate that you are taking their thoughts on board too by playing back to them what you have heard and thanking them for their feedback.

3. Include colleagues in decision making 

Gather input from your team and colleagues when making decisions, particularly ones that will affect them. Collaborating with others will not only produce the best outcome but will also help people feel valued and a sense of belonging.

4. Admit when you make mistakes 

Leaders must own up to their mistakes and celebrate failures as learnings. This will help team members understand that they won’t be punished for their own mistakes and also help them feel more comfortable speaking up when there are problems.

5. Promote healthy conflict 

Emphasise to your team that healthy conflict can lead to innovation, giving people permission to disagree. Ask questions in a certain way that allows people to feel that you are debating their ideas rather than judging them as a person because of their ideas. 

Data taken from employee emotion surveys conducted in 2021. For survey responses regarding whether employees feel they can be themselves at work, there were 7743 respondents. For survey responses regarding whether employees feel that the culture in their organisation is inclusive to all regardless of differences, there were 6284 respondents.

Counselling needs spike 145% as lockdown eases

Employers may think that the easing of lockdown will result in an improvement in mental health, but figures released by Towergate Health & Protection suggest that employees may be in greater need of support than ever.

Figures from one of firm’s leading employee assistance programme (EAP) providers show a pronounced increase in utilisation as lockdown eases, compared with figures from the first and most strict lockdown. During March 2021, counselling calls increased by 145% over the figures from March 2020, with numbers exceeding the peak previously seen in July 2020.

Brett Hill, distribution director for Towergate Health & Protection, said: “It would be understandable for employers to think that the peak time for stress would have been in March 2020, when the country was in the midst of the most severe lockdown. However, the figures show that utilisation of counselling provision has increased significantly as things have begun to open up again. There may be many reasons for this, including the anxiety of returning to work and the stresses of resuming the rush and tumult of everyday life.”

By far the majority of calls for counselling services have been regarding anxiety, followed by low mood, then depression. The increase in service use is evident across both traditional access points via the telephone, and online.

During these uncertain times, EAP support for employees can prove invaluable. Offered as an integral part of many existing employee benefits, such as income protection and life assurance, or as a standalone, EAPs can offer a great range of employee support. The programme will typically include assessment, short-term counselling and referral services for employees and their immediate family, wherever they are in the world. The provision is intended to help employees deal with personal problems that may adversely affect their health and wellbeing and work performance.

The need for employee support is huge. This leading EAP provider received over 33,000 calls, delivered 23,000 structured therapy sessions and received over 11,000 hits on its online portal in April 2021. Without a programme in place to support employees via EAPs and other wellbeing benefits, employers can be left to pick up the pieces.

EAPs are there for immediate assistance, to provide support when it is needed. They also help employees to build foundations to better manage their own wellbeing, such as with virtual training sessions on topics such as stress management and coping with change. So they can help build mental resilience too, and this can not only support the mental health of each individual but of those around them too.

Hill continued: “As a population, we have had to cope with a great deal over the last year or so. It should perhaps not be surprising that this has had a knock-on effect. We have been conditioned to become socially distant, and the return to busy offices, a hectic commute, and a gear-change in life in general are all likely to bring with them stress and anxiety. The good news is, there’s a lot that employers can do to make sure these problems do not escalate and affect working life. Support is available and employers should make use of it to ensure the wellbeing of their workforce.”

Study finds construction workers at higher risk of suicide

Initiatives aimed at protecting the mental health of construction workers may not be getting to those who need them, leading to an increased risk of suicide, researchers at Glasgow Caledonian University have warned.

The new findings come after academics at the University’s Research Centre for Built Environment Asset Management (BEAM) Centre helped develop a ‘dashboard’ of wellbeing for the industry, commissioned by construction mental-health charity, the Lighthouse Club.

The dashboard will be an interactive database, bringing together in one place measurable data in the public domain on construction safety, health and wellbeing. This will be updated yearly, allowing industry organisations, policy makers and researchers to view trends via graphs generated by the data, as well as use it to track progress of industry initiatives, inform decision making and undertake further analysis using the source data.

The work involved bringing data together on suicides – seen as the ‘acid test’ as to whether mental-health initiatives are working – for the period immediately before and subsequently after the UK Government Independent Review on mental health ‘Thriving at work’ in 2017.

Analysis of suicides by occupation, conducted by Professor Billy Hare (pictured, above), who is leading the study, demonstrated that the number per 100,000 for construction workers rose from 26 to 29 in the four years to 2019, despite various initiatives and thousands of awareness training sessions put in place since publication of the Government report in 2017.

The data also shows no change in historical ratios, with people in the construction industry three times more likely to take their own life than those working outside it. There also appears to be some variation between certain occupational groups within the industry.

Those working in non-manual occupations, such as managers and professionals, have lower rates, which have also seen an overall drop in rate from just under 7 in 2015, to just under 5 per 100,000 in 2019. Conversely, unskilled workers, such as labourers, have seen their rate rise year on year from 48 to just over 73 suicides per 100,000.

Professor Hare said: “This occupational group is usually higher than average for suicides, but the sharp rise and widening gap over the period analysed, in contrast to their non-manual colleagues, is concerning and may indicate recent initiatives are not reaching these more vulnerable sectors of the industry.

“Unskilled workers tend to fall into the lowest socio-economic classes, which are associated with lower life expectancy in general, and tend to display the classic characteristics linked to poor mental health, such as alcohol and substance abuse, financial and relationship problems and suffer multiple stressful life events.”

Professor Hare cautioned, however, that these are just preliminary findings and more robust data needs to be obtained so that factors such as age can be controlled for. Usable data was only available for England and Wales, and the team are hoping to also add those for Scotland and Northern Ireland in due course.

Meanwhile, researchers led by Professor Hare are also undertaking a review of construction-specific factors around suicide, funded by the Samaritans. This research will inform the charity’s development of intervention strategies to reduce the high rates seen in the construction industry.

Lack of employer psychological health awareness leaves staff at higher risk of depression

A year-long Australian population study has found that full time workers employed by organisations that fail to prioritise their employees’ mental health have a threefold increased risk of being diagnosed with depression.

And while working long hours is a risk factor for dying from cardiovascular disease or having a stroke, poor management practices pose a greater risk for depression, the researchers found.

The University of South Australia study, published in the British Medical Journal, is led by UniSA’s Psychosocial Safety Climate Observatory, the world’s first research platform exploring workplace psychological health and safety.

Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) is the term used to describe management practices and communication and participation systems that protect workers’ mental health and safety.

Lead author, Dr Amy Zadow, said that poor workplace mental health can be traced back to poor management practices, priorities and values, which then flows through to high job demands and low resources.

“Evidence shows that companies who fail to reward or acknowledge their employees for hard work, impose unreasonable demands on workers, and do not give them autonomy, are placing their staff at a much greater risk of depression,” said Dr Zadow.

Internationally renowned expert on workplace mental health, ARC Laureate Professor Maureen Dollard, says the study found that while enthusiastic and committed workers are valued, working long hours can lead to depression. Men are also more likely to become depressed if their workplace pays scant attention to their psychological health.

Due to the global burden of depression, which affects an estimated 300 million people worldwide and shows no sign of abating despite available treatments, more attention is now being paid to poorly functioning work environments which could contribute to the problem.

High levels of burnout and workplace bullying are also linked to corporations’ failure to support workers’ mental health.

A second paper co-authored by Professor Dollard and published in the European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology earlier this month, found that low PSC was an important predictor of bullying and emotional exhaustion.

“Lack of consultation with employees and unions over workplace health and safety issues, and little support for stress prevention, is linked to low PSC in companies.

“We also found that bullying in a work unit can not only negatively affect the victim, but also the perpetrator and team members who witness that behaviour. It is not uncommon for everyone in the same unit to experience burnout as a result.

“In this study we investigated bullying in a group context and why it occurs. Sometimes stress is a trigger for bullying and in the worst cases it can set an ‘acceptable’ level of behaviour for other members of the team. But above all bullying can be predicted from a company’s commitment to mental health, so it can be prevented,” Prof Dollard added.

The global costs of workplace bullying and worker burnout are significant, manifested in absenteeism, poor work engagement, stress leave and low productivity.

The extent of the problem was recognised in 2019 with the International Labour Organization (ILO) implementing a Global Commission on the Future of Work and calling for “a human-centred approach, putting people and the work they do at the centre of economic and social policy and business practice”.

“The practical implications of this research are far reaching. High levels of worker burnout are extremely costly to organisations and it’s clear that top-level organisational change is needed to address the issue,” Prof Dollard said.

employers advised to increase bereavement support

RedArc is warning employers to be prepared for a huge spike in the need for bereavement support services and counselling for employees during the remainder of 2021.

Based on year-to-date figures, the nurse-led wellbeing service is predicting a 40% year-on-year increase in referrals to its bereavement support, which means that it will help the largest number of bereaved individuals in one year in its 23-year history. This follows several years of bereavement referrals being relatively stable.

Further analysis of RedArc’s data shows that in quarter one of 2021, referrals for bereavement were second only to mental health conditions (of which there are many variants), and ahead of orthopaedic issues and cancer.

In addition, RedArc believes that many of the employees who lost loved ones during the second wave of the pandemic are yet to come forward for support. Bereavement, grief and loss cause a number of symptoms and emotions that individuals usually learn to cope with but where these feelings become overwhelming and do not subside, professional support may be sought several months, or even years, after the initial loss.

Christine Husbands, managing director for RedArc, said: “Employers are likely to be seeing the after-effects of the pandemic on their employees before we do, so many will already understand the impact that losing a loved in such an untimely manner is having on staff. Unfortunately, the pandemic not only took away loved ones but also removed our ability to properly grieve: not being at a loved one’s bedside, reduced numbers at funerals, social distancing, a hug ‘ban’, and being unable to see family and friends, means more people than ever are struggling with their emotions in bereavement.”

Employers need to re-familiarise with bereavement support
RedArc is encouraging all employers to re-familiarise themselves with how they support their staff during a bereavement. Whether or not this is via existing employee benefits such as group risk insurances or funded on a case-by-case basis, it’s important to communicate this information to employees.

Husbands continued:“Following the stresses and strains of the past eighteen months, employers may find that their staff are not emotionally resilient at present and therefore coming to terms with the loss of a loved one is even more difficult. In addition, many families will have organised a relatively small funeral but may be looking to host a larger celebration-of-life service or ceremony at a later date, which means the grieving process is also extended. Therefore, employers should also be aware that their employees may grieve harder and for longer than in normal circumstances.”

Types of bereavement support
As well as providing emotional support for the employee and their immediate family, bereavement services may also offer tailored support ranging from reading materials such as books, CDs, workbooks and fact-sheets as well as signposting employees towards national and local bereavement charities and self-help groups. Practical help often includes sourcing care for family members left behind, helping the employee juggle work, childcare etc, support for parents also coping with their children’s grief, and coping strategies for dealing with milestones such as anniversaries, birthdays and Christmas.

Husbands concluded:”There is no timetable for the grieving process – everyone will have a different experience. That’s why employers need to ensure they have support in place that can be tailored to meet the individual needs of staff because no-one can predict how long it will take to adjust to living without a family member or loved one particularly when lost in difficult circumstances.”

30 per cent of disabled workers treated unfairly during pandemic – TUC

Nearly one in three (30 per cent) disabled workers say that they’ve been treated unfairly at work during the Covid-19 pandemic, according to a new poll published by the TUC.

The survey – carried out by YouGov for the TUC – reveals that many disabled people report that they experienced significant barriers in the workplace before the pandemic, and that Covid-19 has made things worse for them.

Before the Covid-19 pandemic, disabled workers were hugely underrepresented and underpaid in the labour market. The employment gap between disabled and non-disabled workers was 28 per cent. And disabled workers are paid 20 per cent less than non-disabled peers. 

Covid-19 risks undoing recent improvements in getting disabled people into work, and pushing disabled people back out of the labour market. Recent government figures show that redundancy rates are now 62 per cent higher for disabled workers 

Disabled workers told the TUC that their disability or shielding status meant they were treated unfairly, and worse than other colleagues during the pandemic. For example:

  • One in 13 (eight per cent) said they were subjected to bullying and/or harassment, being ignored or excluded, singled out for criticism or being monitored excessively at work.
  • One in eight (twelve per cent) said they were concerned their disability had affected their chances of a promotion in the future.
  • One in eight (13 per cent) said they were concerned their disability had affected how their performance would be assessed by their manager.

The poll also uncovered:

  • Shielding workers put at risk: More than one in five (21 per cent) shielding workers worked outside of their home most of the time – even though employers could use furlough to protect shielding workers who could not do their jobs from home. 
  • Hostile workplaces: One in eight (12 per cent) disabled workers told the TUC that they have not told their employer about their disability or health condition, with many of these workers fearing being treated unfairly (24%) or even losing their job (21%) if they were open about their disability or health condition. 
  • Employers failing disabled workers: only just over half (55 per cent) of those who asked their employers for reasonable adjustments during the pandemic told the TUC that they had been made in full. Almost a third (30 per cent) said they didn’t get all their reasonable adjustments, and one in six (16 per cent) said they had none implemented. The law says every employer must make reasonable adjustments for disabled members of staff so they can do their job. These may be things like providing the right type of phone for someone who uses a hearing aid, replacing a desk chair with one designed for an employee who has a back condition, or simply allowing home working.
  • Unsafe workplaces: A quarter of disabled workers (25 per cent) said they felt unsafe at work during the pandemic due to the risk of catching/spreading the virus – and this rose to nearly one in three (30 per cent) among those who worked outside their homes throughout. Of those who face additional risk to Covid-19 due to their health condition/ disability, almost half (46 per cent) have not discussed these additional risks with their employer.

TUC General Secretary Frances O’Grady said: “Before the pandemic, disabled workers were already up against huge barriers getting into and staying in work. Covid-19 has made it even worse. 

“Employers are failing disabled workers.  Many disabled and shielding workers felt unsafe at work during the pandemic. And too many disabled workers told us their boss is breaking the law by not giving them the adjustments they need.

“We saw with the last financial crisis that disabled people are all too often first in line for redundancy. As we recover from the pandemic, we can’t afford to reverse the vital progress that disabled people have made – in the workplace and in wider society.

“Ministers must act. We need proper enforcement of disabled workers’ rights to reasonable adjustments and safety at work, and a duty on employers to report and close the pay gap between disabled and non-disabled workers.” 

Only one third of firms embracing full office return post-COVID

While many business leaders are drawn to vaccine passports as a solution to bring their workforces back to the office full-time, Forrester predicts that 70% of US and European companies will pivot to a hybrid work model post-pandemic.

In a hybrid model setup, at least some employees can work anywhere they want for two or more days a week while coming into the office on the remaining workdays. Forrester’s research shows that companies that master this opportunity will accrue both employee experience and business benefits, including higher retention rates and long-term recruitment advantages.

According to Forrester, 55% of US employees say they hope to work from home more often, even after the pandemic ends. Additionally, leaders need to consider overall employee sentiment toward vaccination when planning return-to-office strategies. According to data:

  • 47% of US workers and 54% of European workers believe vaccines will not completely stop the spread of the COVID-19 virus.
  • Only 39% of US workers and 34% of European workers feel that their employers have a plan in place to provide vaccination.
  • Two-thirds of workers in both regions are not comfortable with employers collecting their personal data specific to the pandemic.

While some C-level executives view anywhere-work with skepticism, this model is now imperative for higher-value talent. To successfully implement this model, however, companies must assess specific anywhere-work readiness elements to determine preparedness. They must also consider refreshing their office spaces, including reconceptualizing desk usage to support hybrid work.

Forrester’s anywhere-work readiness calculator will help companies pursue the benefits of anywhere-work and design an action plan based on their readiness. The calculator assesses several company factors, including the percentage of employees who can potentially work remotely and how technologies stack up in terms of collaboration and security. The calculator will help firms invest in and provide technological, cultural, and leadership resources to support work from any location.

“The pandemic has taught us that organizations play a bigger role in employee wellness than previously understood,” said Keith Johnston, VP and group research director at Forrester. “It also reveals how the future of work will be driven by employees having the ability to work anywhere. By shifting conversations to focus on the working environments that best suit employees’ needs moving forward, organizations can ensure that their employees feel they are being heard and that they have the autonomy and tools to do their jobs effectively.”

The UK is the 3rd Worst Country in Europe for Sick Pay

With over 83,000 Google searches a month for the term ‘statutory sick pay’, a new report by The Compensation Experts has ranked European Nations on how well they compensate their citizens in times of ill health.

Iceland leads the way in Europe for their workers’ sick pay package. Employees across the Nordic nation are entitled to an impressive 100% of their wage for a minimum of two days for every month they’ve been in employment.

Trailing closely, fellow Northern European nations Norway and Denmark also offer great sick pay entitlement; each provides nationals with 100% of their salary, with the Norwegian government covering a worker for up to a year, and Danes covered for up to 22 weeks within a nine-month period.

The top ten European countries for sick pay can be seen below:

RankingCountryMinimum % of wage that can be paid during sick leaveMaximum period allowed off as statutory sick pay
1Iceland100%2 days for each week worked
2Norway100%52 weeks
3Luxembourg100%89 weeks
4Denmark100%30 days + 22 weeks
5Austria50%78 weeks
6Germany70%84 weeks
7Finland70%44 weeks
8Switzerland80%103 weeks
9Monaco€146.67 per day / 90% salaryDetermined by employee contract
10Montenegro70%65 days*

Malta might be known for stunning views and sun, but it’s been revealed as the worst country in Europe for sick pay, only paying employees €420.30 per month.

Ireland and the United Kingdom follow closely behind – with Ireland’s sick pay being determined by employee contract type and the UK paying only £96.35 per week, for up to 28 weeks.

The ten worst countries for sick pay in Europe can be seen below:

Ranking (1 being the worst)CountryMinimum % of wage that can be paid during sick leaveMaximum period allowed off as statutory sick pay
1Malta€420.30 per month.22 weeks
2IrelandNo legal minimum sick payDetermined by employee contract
3United Kingdom£96.35 per week28 weeks
4Ukraine50%5 days*
5Slovakia25%53 weeks
6France50%26 weeks
7Italy50%26 weeks
8Greece50%Length of employment dependent
9Andorra53%156 weeks
10Russia50%Determined by a doctor

For full information please visit: https://the-compensation-experts.co.uk/european-sick-pay/

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